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20世纪最伟大的女性,竟然是个“三无”科学家

发布于 2019-06-23

若用拯救多少人的生命来衡量伟大程度

那么毫无疑问-

她是历史上最伟大的科学家!

前几天的微博热搜,在被八卦娱乐话题关键词包围中我看到了一股清流

先来阅读一篇BBC小短文加深了解这位20世纪最伟大的科学家与青蒿素的故事


The story of an exceptional【杰出的.优秀的.卓越的】scientist,who will risk her own life to find acure【疗法】for malaria【疟疾】and bring it to the world.

Tu’s quest【探索】 didn’t begin in China but in the jungles【丛林】 of Vietnam 【越南】where soldiers on both sides of the war found themselves fighting a third enemy mosquitoes【蚊子】

Tens of thousands were left incapacitated【使失去正常活动能力】 after being bitten by the malaria-carrying insects【昆虫】.In one US unit,a third of【三分之一】 soldiers contracted【v.感染】 the disease.We have no way of estimating 【估计】how many soldiers died in the North Vietnamese army,but we know the losses were colossal【巨大的】 because the Communist Party【共产党】 Chairman,Ho Chi Minh reached out in desperation【绝望的】 to his allies in China asking for help to find a cure.

Chairman Mao Zedong declared the search for a drug as top priority【优先】 At Beijing’s Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,39-year-old researcher Tu Youyou decided to scour【搜寻】 hundreds of old manuscripts【手稿】 in search of ancient wisdom,a traditional herbal【草本的】 remedy【治疗】 that might form【形成】 the basis of a cure.With over 2000preparations【药剂】 to choose from,this was a daunting【令人气馁的】 task.

Despite【尽管】 the hardship,Tu never gave up hope that a cure was just around the corner.Buy this stage,she had tested almost 200 compounds【化合物】 with nothing to show for it.She continued to scour the ancient text.Then,in a book written in the fourth century by Chinese scholar Ge Hong,she found a preparation that claimed to cure a malaria-like fever:Take a handful of ARTEMISIA ANNUA【青蒿】. Soak in two litres【公升】 of water. Extrude【挤出】juice and take it all.Artemisia was a plant Tu had tested before without success.Then she had anepiphany【灵感】.By heating the plant to extract【提取】 the compound, she might have been damaging the drug in the process.Instead,she decided to try extracting it at a lower temperature,mimicking【模仿】 the original formula【处方】.She tested it on a cluster【群簇】of malaria cells,every single one was destroyed.

But when the team tested the drug on animals,the results were alarming.While some of them were cured,others were poisoned【中毒的】.Nobody could say whether the drug could be safe in humans.What happen next was a little unconventional【非常规的】,scientifically.Tu was convinced that the extract would work that she volunteered to test it on herself.Knowing what was at stake【处于危险】,Tu went into hospital and over several day,doctor gradually increased the dose【剂量】.She took the extract,she felt fine but more importantly,they were monitoring her major organs【器官】,her heart, liver,kidneys and they were fine too.The test had worked.

Few people are brave enough to risk their own lives in the hope of saving others.Like any new drug,it would take many years of refinement【精炼】 by Tu and her team before artemisinin could be rolled out【实行】 worldwide.The first tablets【药片】 were approved in 1986.In 1999,the World Hearth Organisation added artemisinin to their list of essential【基础的】medicines.

Since then,the number of deaths due to malaria have fallen by almost 50%,with several countrieseradicating【根除】 the disease altogether.Tu dedicated【奉献】 her life to perfecting the drug but continued to work in the shadows.

Then 40 years after the discovery.Tu was herself discovered by National Academy of Science【美国国家科学院】.They wrote about her story in journal Cell.At the age of 84,she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine,the first Chinese person ever to win the award.

If you measure greatness in terms of the number of human lives saved,then there is no doubt that Tu Youyou is one of the greatest scientists of all time.The drugs saved million of people’s lives.People in some of the poorest communities on the planet,millions of children.

自屠呦呦发现青蒿素以来,青蒿素衍生物一直作为最有效、无并发症的疟疾联合用药。

然而,世界卫生组织最新发布的《2018年世界疟疾报告》显示

2018年世界疟疾报告


全球疟疾防治进展陷入停滞,疟疾仍是世界上最主要的致死病因之一

当前,全球抗疟面临的最大技术挑战是

疟原虫对青蒿素类抗疟药物产生抗药性

Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is a first-line anti-malarial therapyvigorously【有力的,活泼的】 promoted by WHO, and it is the most important weapon of anti-malarial in the world. Once the malaria parasite is generallyresistant【阻力,反抗】 to the drug, the consequences will be very serious. Scientists around the world are very concerned about the furtherdeterioration【恶化,退化】 of artemisinin resistance. 


疫情随着区域颜色加深而加深

近年来,青蒿素已经在全球部分地区出现“抗药性”,世卫组织和东南亚国家的多项研究表明,在柬埔寨、泰国、缅甸、越南等大湄公河次区域国家,对疟疾感染者采用青蒿素联合疗法的三天周期治疗过程中 

   疟原虫清除速度出现缓慢迹象,并产生对青蒿素的抗药性

这一现象受到全球抗疟专家重视,青蒿素的发现者屠呦呦,也带领着团队针对“抗药性成因”“治疗手段”方面展开研究,并取得了进展!近期,屠呦呦团队提出应对“青蒿素抗药性”难题的可行治疗方案

1.适当延长用药时间,由三天疗法增至五天或七天疗法  2.更换青蒿素联合疗法中已产生抗药性的辅助药物


经过试验,屠呦呦团队提出的“青蒿素抗药性”治疗应对方案非常有效,这一应对方案也引发了业内关注,近期被国际顶级医学权威期刊《新英格兰医学杂志(NEJM)》刊载。这一次屠呦呦团队开展的关于“青蒿素抗药性”的进展,对于全球抗疟工作具有重要的意义,可以说,屠呦呦团队又一次为世界做出重大贡献!



另一方面,由屠呦呦团队成员、中国中医科学院研究员廖福龙等专家撰写的青蒿素等传统中医药科研论著,有望首次纳入即将再版的国际权威医学教科书《牛津医学教科书(第六版)》。

新华社报道称,该章节名为“传统医药的典范—中医药”,目前已完成定稿,具体分为

“什么是传统医药”

“青蒿素等中药发现史、作用机理和临床应用”

“中医药整体观与辨证论治”

“传统医药便廉可及”四个部分

传统中医药科研论纳入《牛津医学教科书》,对于“中医文化”而言,意义非凡,而这一切,都离不开屠呦呦先生的努力与贡献。


事实上,这一次屠呦呦给世界带来的惊喜还不止如此

青蒿素有望治疗红斑狼疮

关于红斑狼疮,许多人,包括医学专家对这类疾病都不是很了解。

红斑狼疮是一种典型的自身免疫性结缔组织病,该疾病一直有着不死癌症之称。由于该疾病是自身免疫疾病,在治疗上带来了许多困难,因为发病原因难以明确,治疗手段也相当有限。

到目前,红斑狼疮并没有根治的方法

在全世界对红斑狼疮无能为力的时候,屠老为全世界的红斑狼疮带来了新希望

根据屠呦呦团队前期临床观察,青蒿素对盘状红斑狼疮、系统性红斑狼疮的治疗有效率分别超90%80%

该临床试验一期于2018年5月正式启动,设计样本共120例。此次临床试验一般共三期,二、三期试验样本量更大,至少还需78年。若试验顺利,预计新双氢青蒿素片剂或最快于2026年前后获批上市。

青蒿素有望治疗红斑狼疮新闻一出之后,迅速在网上引起热议,这是那些曾经被医生判定要吃一辈子药的红斑狼疮患者第一次看到希望


看到这些留言,我不禁有些泪目,健康人的一些日常生活,对于患者而言,竟是如此的艰难。


我们不知道,在健康的人们,打着太阳伞,嫌弃太阳太大皮肤会被晒黑的时候,那些红斑狼疮患者们有多想触碰这些阳光;


我们不知道,在健康的人们挑食,嫌弃菜品不合口味的时候,那些红斑狼疮患者们有多想肆意的吃一顿;


我们不知道,在健康的人们午夜空虚,无病呻吟的时候,有多少患病的人在奢求着一个健康的身体......


很多人都不知道红斑狼疮患者们的生活有多艰难,很多人也不知道,那些像屠呦呦老先生一样奋战在一线的科研人员,有多伟大?


奢求。大家打着太阳伞,嫌弃太晒会被晒黑的时候,患者们有多想触碰这些阳光。大家挑食,嫌弃菜品不合口味的时候,患者们有多想肆意的吃一顿;大家无病呻吟的时候,有多少患者在奢望着一个健康的身体。

很多人都不知道红斑狼疮患者们的生活有多艰难,很多人也不知道,那些像屠呦呦老先生一样奋战在一线的科研人员,有多伟大。


2019年1月初,英国BBC新闻网新版块“偶像(ICON)”栏目发起“20世纪最伟大人物”评选。中国首位诺贝尔生理学或医学奖得主屠呦呦成功进入候选人名单。她不仅是科学领域中唯一在世的候选人,也是所有28位候选人中唯一的亚洲人。和她一起入围的,还有物理学家居里夫人(Maria Curie)、物理学家爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)以及数学家艾伦·图灵(Alan Turing)BBC这样评价他们

Four people who may have seemed outsiders,A female Polish immigrant,a Jewish refugee,a gay mathematician and a Chinese woman working almost anonymously.Ended up making biggest contribution to the 20th century.But despite their differences,the all shared the intellectual courage to think outside the box and the personal courage to stand firm in the face of adversity.

如果用拯救多少人的生命来衡量伟大程度的话,那么毫无疑问,屠呦呦是历史上最伟大的科学家


这是一句高度赞美的话语。

但在那些曾经经历疟疾病痛折磨的人看来,屠呦呦远不是一句“伟大的科学家”能形容的。

当一个人在科研方面有杰出的贡献时,我们会称他“科学家”。

当一个人将为人类创造更美好的明天作为奋斗目标时,我们会称他“伟人”。

屠呦呦,是科学家,更是伟人!

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